TERMS TO KNOW
■ Drill cuttings: Rock and soil carried to the surface during drilling. Cuttings coming into contact with drilling muds, oils and other contaminants are classified as solid wastes, If they pass a paint-filter test, they must be sent to a landfill or managed at the drilling site. A typical well is 9 inches in diameter and up to 14,000 feet in length.
■ Drilling muds: A fluid used to aid in drilling a bore hole. Compressed air also can be used. Oil-based drilling muds are valuable and are recovered and reused.
■ Frack sands: Specialized sands placed in the well during the fracking process to help keep underground cracks open so gas, oil and other liquids can be recovered.
■ Brine / flowback / production waters: Liquid wastes from drilling.