BASEBALL

Scoring Summaries

ST. VINCENT-ST. MARY 7, GILMOUR 6

Gilmour 005 001 0 — 6 8 2

STVM 132 100 X — 7 9 0

Batteries—Regalbuto, Jaces (5) and Flesher; Journic, Wysocki (3), Whaley (7) and George. W—Wysocki, 1-0. L—Regalbuto, 0-1. Save—Whaley (1). HR—STVM: Wilcox (1).

Records: Gilmour 0-2; STVM 1-1.

Notes: Gilmour: Dolan 2 singles, double, 2 RBI. STVM: Dages 2 singles, 2 RBI; Wilcox single, HR, 2 RBI; Dillard double, RBI.

TALLMADGE 9, WADSWORTH 3

Tallmadge 004 200 3 — 9 6 1

Wadsworth 010 002 0 — 3 10 3

Batteries—Linder, Jackson (5) and Boyer; Prather, Schieman (4) and Karaffa. W—Linder, 1-0. L—Prather. Save—None. HR—None.

Records: Tallmadge 1-0, 1-0; Wadsworth 0-2, 0-1.

Notes: Tallmadge: Skraba 2 singles, 2 runs, RBI; Shomo 2 doubles, 2 RBI.

CANTON CENTRAL CATHOLIC 2, MANCHESTER 1

CCC 101 000 0 — 2 7 2

Manchester 000 001 0 — 1 5 2

Batteries—Frohamn,and Paone; Griffiths and Herman. W—Frohman, 1-0. L—Griffiths, 0-1. HR—CCC: Locke (1).

Records: CCC 1-0; Manchester, 0-1.

Notes: CCC: Locke led off game with HR; Jones 3 singles, double; Man.: Keim 2 singles; Stahl 2 single, RBI.

REVERE 11, CLOVERLEAF 8

Revere 032 013 2 — 11 8 4

Cloverleaf 114 200 0 — 8 6 4

Batteries—Allen, Gabel (5), Dyko (6) and Lewis, Sperhac (5); Sykora and Jeffery. W—Gable, 1-0. L—Sykora, 0-1. Save—Dyko (1). HR—None.

Records: Revere 1-0, 1-0; Cloverleaf 1-1, 0-1.

Notes: Revere: Sustersic 2 doubles, 3 runs; Weiland 2 singles, 3 RBI, run. Cloverleaf: Norris single, double.

HIGHLAND 9, NORDONIA 6

Highland 400 041 0 — 9 10 4

Nordonia 320 100 0 — 6 8 3

Batteries—Priese and Garcia; Danko, Nicholl (6) and Klein. W—Priese, 1-0. L—Danko, 0-1. Save—None. HR—Hig: Scholle (1).

Records: Highland 1-1, 1-0; Nordonia 0-2, 0-1.

Notes: Highland: Sedio 2 triples, RBI, 3 runs; Raley single, double, HBP, 2 runs. Nordonia: Piotrowski 2 singles, 3 runs; Sutkaytis 2 singles; Miller 2 singles, RBI.

SMITHVILLE 4, MAPLETON 2

Smithville 002 002 0 — 4 6 3

Mapleton 100 010 0 — 2 6 3

Batteries—Kendall and Oldaker; Gregg and Paramore. W—Kendall, 1-0. L—0-1. HR—none.

Records: Smithville 1-0; Mapleton 0-1.

Notes: Smithvile : Thut 2 singles; Oldaker single, double

CRESTWOOD 17, CARDINAL 0 (5)

Cardinal 000 00 — 0 1 4

Crestwood 404 72 — 17 15 2

Batteries—Dyrcz; McKinley and Pahoresky. W—McKinley, 2-0. L—Dyrcz, 0-1. Save—None. HR—None.

Records: Crestwood 2-0.

Notes: Cardinal: . Crestwood: Chiudioni 2 singles, 2 runs, 3 SB; McKinley 3 singles, RBI; Wolff 2 triples, 3 runs, 2 RBI.

HIGHLAND 9, NORDONIA 6

Highland 400 041 0 — 9 10 4

Nordonia 320 100 0 — 6 8 3

Batteries—Priese and Garcia; Danko, Nicholl (6) and Klein. W—Priese, 1-0. L—Danko, 0-1. Save—None. HR—Hig: Scholle (1).

Records: Highland 1-1, 1-0; Nordonia 0-2, 0-1.

Notes: Highland: Sedio 2 triples, RBI, 3 runs; Raley single, double, HBP, 2 runs. Nordonia: Piotrowski 2 singles, 3 runs; Sutkaytis 2 singles; Miller 2 singles, RBI.

ELLET 16, NORTH 2

Ellet 000 432 7 — 16 14 1

North 000 010 1 — 2 4 5

Batteries—Liston, Myers (6) and Campano, Sherrard (6); Foster, Harris (5), Kovacevich (7) and Laubacher. W—Liston, 1-0. L—Foster, 0-1. Save—None. HR—Ellet: Averitt (1).

Records: Ellet 2-0, 2-0; North 0-2, 0-2.

FIRESTONE 11, KENMORE 1 (5)

Firestone 422 30 — 11 8 1

Kenmore 000 10 — 1 3 5

Batteries—Halverson and Lehman; Newberry, Cox (3) and Calvert. W—Halverson, 1-0. L—Newberry, 0-1. HR—none.

Records: Firestone, 2-0; Kenmore 0-2.

Notes: Firestone: Fite single, 2 doubles, 3 runs.

JACKSON 3, ST. IGNATIUS 0

St. Ignatius 000 000 0 — 0 2 0

Jackson 020 001 X — 3 4 0

Batteries—Rolle and Piscioneri; Cooperider and Jones. W—Cooperider, 1-0. L—Rolle, 0-1. Save—None. HR—None.

Records: St. Ignatius 0-1; Jackson 1-0.

Notes: St. Ignatius: . Jackson: Bender double, RBI; Stalnaker double, RBI.

WEST BRANCH 10, CARROLLTON 2

Carrollton 100 001 0 — 2 6 2

West Branch 410 320 0 — 10 11 2

Batteries—Vizzuso, Clayton (7) and Smith, Ruggles (5); Fisher, Fry (5) and Mohn. W—Zizzuso, 1-0. L—Fisher, 0-1. Save—None. HR—None.

Records: Carrollton 1-1, 0-1; West Branch 2-0, 1-0.

Notes: Carrollton: Collins hit, 2 runs. West Branch: Wells single, triple, RBI, 2 runs; Clayton 3 singles, 4 RBI, 2 runs.

ARCHBISHOP HOBAN 2, MENTOR LAKE CATHOLIC 0

Hoban 000 002 0 — 2 6 0

Mentor Lake Catholic 000 000 0 — 0 3 2

Batteries—Shaub, Lakos (6) and Yakuvowski; Samuele, Baslett (7) and Peterlin. W—Shaub, 1-0. L—Samuele, 0-1. Save—Lakos (1). HR—None.

Records: Hoban 1-0, 1-0; Mentor Catholic Lake 1-1, 0-1.

Notes: Hoban: Cain 2 singles; Guerriero single, RBI. MLC: Boslett double.

CRESTWOOD 15, MIDDLEFIELD CARDINAL 0 (5)

Cardinal 000 00 — 0 0 2

Crestwood 254 4X — 15 17 2

Batteries—Purpura and Butcher; Sargiovanni and Miller . W—Sargiovanni, 1-0. L—Purpa, 0-1.

Records: Cardinal 0-2; Crestwood 2-0.

Notes: Crestwood; Sargiovanni 2 singles, 3 runs, RBI no hitter 10 strikeouts 2 walks (first career no hitter) Auble 2 singles, triples, 3 runs, 32 RBI; Fedor single, double, 2 runs, RBI.

LAKE CENTER CHRISTIAN 5, ROOTSTOWN 4

Rootstown 101 002 0 — 4 4 2

LCC 010 030 1 — 5 7 4

Batteries—Langston, England (2) and Croasmun; Armstrong, Hefty (6) and Wittmer. W—Hefty, 1-0. L—England, 0-1. Save—None. HR—None.

Records: Rootstown 0-1; LCC 1-1.

Notes: Rootstown: Langston double, RBI; Murdock 2 runs; R. Ringler 2 RBI. LCC: Armstrong 2 RBI; DiLauro 2 RBI; Hefty 2 singles, RBI.

BUCHTEL 9, GARFIELD 7

Garfield 000 051 1 — 7 5 3

Buchtel 211 140 X — 9 8 2

Batteries—Miller and Ferris; McGinnis and Henderson . W—McGinnis, 1-0. L—Miller.

Records: Garfield 1-1; Buchtel 1-1.

Notes: Buchtel: Jones single, double triple, 3 runs, 2 RBI; Chambers single, double, run , RBI; McGinnis single, double, 2 runs, RBI

NORTH ROYALTON 9, CUYAHOGA FALLS 3

Cuyahoga Falls 201 000 0 — 3 6 1

North Royalton 004 131 X — 9 10 0

Batteries—Shaw, Smith (3), Woods (6) and Knisely; Lark, Rossman (7) and Vasil. W—Lark, 1-0. L—Shaw, 0-1. Save—None. HR—None.

Notes: Cuyahoga Falls: Lawrence 2 singles, double, 2 runs; Meade double, 2 RBI. North Royalton: Adams double, 2 RBI; Freeman single, double, RBI; Burger single, 2 RBI.

CANTON SOUTH 9, MARLINGTON 1

Marlington 000 010 0 — 1 3 8

Canton South 000 027 X — 9 8 1

Batteries—Bowles, Miller (7) and Thomson; Fey, Thompson (6), Kirk (6) and Rupert. W—Bowles, 1-0. L—Fey, 0-1. Save—None. HR—None.

Notes: Marlington: Walker double. Canton South: Wilson 2 singles, RBI; Mallen single, double; Porter triple.

EAST CANTON 17, MALVERN 12

Malvern 143 300 1 — 12 9 0

East Canton 011 456 X — 17 14 4

Records: Malvern, 0-1; East Canton 1-0.

Notes: East Canton: reichard 2 singels, 2 RBI; Elseser 2 singles, 3 RBI; Malvern: Loomis 3 singles, Mohr 2 singles, 3 runs; Tucci 2 singles, 2 runs.

Late Monday

MOGADORE 8, KIDRON CENTRAL CHRISTIAN 2

Mogadore 100 060 1 — 8 7 3

Central Christian 101 000 0 — 2 6 3

Batteries—Montecalvo and Huth; Haver and Steines. W—Montecalvo, 1-0. L—Haver, 0-1. Records: Mogadore 1-0; Central Christian 0-1.

Notes: Montecalvo 10 strikeouts; Strain 2 singles, run, 3 RBI; Huth run, RBI; Milush double, run; Ricci RB

I

CAL RIPKEN EXPERIENCE?HUDSON 11, PITTSBURGH NORTH CATHOLIC 1

North Catholic 100 00 — 1 1 4

Hudson 032 6X — 11 6 0

Batteries—Smith and Colovos; Malerick, Chafe (5) and Hagy, Schoenmen. W—Malerick, 1-00. L—Smith, 0-1.

Records: North Catholic 1-2; Hudson 1-0.

Notes: Hudson: McLelland 2 runs, RBI; Moran triple, run, RBI; Taaylor double, run, 3 RBI

ST. THOMAS AQUINAS 8, LAKE CENTER CHRISTIAN 2

Aquinas 200 001 5 — 8 8 3

Lake Center 100 100 0 — 2 3 3

Batteries—Anderews, Franks (6) and Blevins; Raymondi a, Floyd (6) and Wittmer. W—Frank , 1-0. L—Floyd, 0-1.

Records: Aquinas, 1-0; Lake Center, 0-1.

Notes: Aquinas: Blevisn 2 singles, run, 2 RBI; Dempsey 2 singles, 2 runs; Frank 2un, 2 RBI; Steel double, 2 runs, RBI; LCC: Floyd: run, RBI; Swartzentruber RBI.

CVCA 6, STREETSBORO 1

Streetsboro 010 000 0 — 1 4 4

CVCA 210 21 X — 6 9 2

Batteries—Gency, Dixon (5) and Bailey; Salyer, Patterson (3) and Claflin. W—Patterson, 1-0. L—Gency, 0-1.

Records: Streetsboro, 0-1; CVCA 1-0.

Notes: CVCA: Claflin 2 singles, run; Gray double, RBI; Knisley 2 doubles, 2 runs.

MEDINA 6, LAKEWOOD 3

Medina 030 030 0 — 6 9 0

Lakewood 000 120 0 — 3 5 2

Batteries—Teachout, Andrew (5), Nau (7) and Luebke; Nadia, Foran (6) and Fuller. W—Teachout, 1-0. L—Nadia, 0-1. Save—None. HR—None.

Records: Medina 1-0; Lakewood 0-1.

Notes: Medina: Passafume single, double, run, 3 RBI. Lakewood: Morris double, RBI.

COPLEY 6, GREEN 3

Copley 000 030 03 — 6 7 1

Green 000 101 10 — 3 7 1

Batteries—Dugan and Cobb; Martin, Miller (6) and Handel. W—Dugan, 1-0. L—Miller, 0-1. Save—None. HR—None.

Records: Copley 1-0, 1-0; Green 0-1, 0-1.

Notes: Copley: Dugan 2 singles, double, RBI; Torrens 2 singles, RBI. Green: Keeslar 2 doubles; Handel single, double, RBI.

SOFTBALL

Scoring Summaries

JACKSON MILTON 4, RAVENNA 1

Ravenna 000 010 0 — 1 6 2

Jackson Milton 000 040 0 — 4 6 0

Batteries—O’Donnell and Anderson; Kiraly and Carney. W—O’Donnell, 1-0. L—Kiraly, 0-1. Save—None. HR—None.

Records: Ravenna 0-1, Jackson 1-0.

Notes: Ravenna: Pooler 2 singles; O’Donnell single, 2 strikeouts; Jones single, RBI; Thomas single.

SOUTHEAST 10, CRESTWOOD 0

Southeast 004 510 0 — 10 12 0

Crestwood 000 000 0 — 0 1 2

Batteries—Schmidt and n/a ; McKinley and Pahorskey. L—McKinley. HR—none.

Records: Southeast, 0-1; Crestwood, 0-1.

Notes: SE: Chiudioni 2 runs; Head 2 triples, 2 runs, 4 RBI; Jeffries 2 doubles, 2 runs; Wolf run, RBI.

ROOTSTOWN 7, LAKE CENTER CHRISTIAN 0

Rootstown 100 510 0 — 7 9 2

Lake Center 000 000 0 — 0 2 3

Batteries—Formick and Huth; Floyd, Hofer (5) and Kyser. W—Formick. L—Floyd.

Records: Rootstown, 1-0; LCC 0-2.

Notes: Rootstown: Hartung RBI; Huth triple, 2 runs; Iarussi 2 singles, run, 2 RBI; Ingramrun, 2 RBI; Miracle 2 doubles, RBI; Wise run RBI; LCC: Coblentz double.

ELLET 14, BUCHTEL 0 (5)

Buchtel 000 00 — 0 0 4

Ellet 642 2X — 14 5 0

Batteries—Cunningham and Whitfield; Smith, Wright (2) and Calise, Maxwell (2). W—Smith, 1-0. L—Cunningham, 0-2.

Records: Buchtel, 0-2; Ellet, 2-0.

KENMORE 10, NORTH 0 (5)

Kenmore 252 00 — 10 7 2

North 000 00 — 0 1 3

Batteries—Pharis, Goochnour (4) and Farson; Meadows and Farlow, Thompson (3). W—Pharis, 1-1. L—Meadows, 0-1.

Records: Kenmore 1-1; North -1.

Notes: Kenmore: Rackley 2 singles, 2 runs, 3 RBI; Ward 2 singles, run, 2 RBI; Pharis 2 singels, 2 RBI; Gochnour double, 3 runs, 2 RBI.

Game One?CAL RIPKEN EXPERIENCE?WALSH JESUIT 10, WEST GEAUGA 0

West Geauga 000 000 — 0 2 5

Walsh Jesuit 105 211 — 10 10 1

Batteries—WJ: Davis, Navratil (6) and Cianciolo. W—Davis, 1-0. HR—WJ: Anter (1).

Notes: Walsh: Anter home run, Ammar 2 singles, run Davis 9 strikoeouts

Game Two?CAL RIPKEN EXPERIENCE?WALSH JESUIT 4, WEST GEAUGA 1

Walsh Jesuit 300 000 1— 4 4 0

West Geauga 000 001 0— 1 2 2

Batteries—WJ: Rahach and Ries. W—Rahach, 1-0.

Records: Walsh 2-0; West Geauga 0-2.

Notes: Walsh: Piper triple, run, RBI.

HUDSON 20, VALLEY FORGE 0 (5)

Hudson 639 02 — 20 13 0

Valley Forge 000 00 — 0 2 4

Batteries—Andrasik, Andrus (5); and Hagy, Schoenman (5); McKenney, Robinson (1) and Brodeck. W—Andrasik, 1-0. L—McKenney, 0-1. Save—None. HR—None.

Records: Hudson 2-0; Valley Forge 0-1.

Notes: Hudson: McClelland 2 singles, 2 runs, 5 RBI; Moran 2 runs, 3 RBI.

ORRVILLE 24, MANSFIELD SENIOR 1 (5)

Mansfield Senior 1 00 00 — 1 0 5

Orrville (13) 50 6X — 24 18 0

Batteries—NA; Kauf, Abel (5) and Dalessandro. W—Kauf, 1-0. L—NA. Save—None. HR—None.

Records: Mansfield 0-1, 0-1; Orrville 2-0, 1-0.

Notes: Orrville: Abel double, run, RBI; Davault double, 3 runs, 3 RBI; Johnson 2 singles, double, 2 runs, 4 RBI; Kauf 3 singles, run, 3 RBI; Miller 3 singles, double, 4 runs, 4 RBI.

CLOVERLEAF 16, BUCKEYE 1 (5)

Cloverleaf 400 84 — 16 17 0

Buckeye 000 10 — 1 3 4

Batteries—Furr and Kelling, Manges (4); Starman, Nichols (5) and Fleck. W—Furr, 2-0. L—Starman, 0-1

Records: Cloverleaf, 4-0; Buckeye 0-2.

Notes: Cloverleaf: Baughman 2 single, run, RBI; Mullins 2 singles, RBI; Carino single, double, 3 runs, RBI; Strebel 3 singles, double, 3 runs, 3 RBI; Kelling single, double, 3 runs, 2 RBI

ELLET 14, BUCHTEL 0

Buchtel 000 00 — 0 0 4

Ellet 642 2X — 14 5 0

Batteries—Cunningham and Whitfield; Smith, Wright (2) and Calise, Maxwell (2). W—Wright, 1-0. L—Cunningham, 0-2. Save—None. HR—None.

Records: Buchtel 0-2; Ellet 2-0.

Late Monday

ELLET 14, GARFIELD 0

Garfield 000 00 — 0 0 3

Ellet 008 6X — 14 8 2

Batteries—Musik and Lindsay; Smith and Calise. W—Smith, 1-0. L—Musik, 0-1. Save—None. HR—None.

WOODRIDGE 17, STREETSBORO 1

Streetsboro 000 010 0 — 1 1 2

Woodridge 276 200 X — 17 17 2

Batteries—Ma. Dombrowski, Davidson (3) and Mi. Dombrowski; Donze and Schneider. W—Donze, 1-0. L—Ma. Dombrowksi, 0-1.

Records: Streetsboro, 1-0; Woodridge 1-0.

Notes: Woodridge: Donze 2 doubles, 3 runs, 2 RBI; Hunstman double, triple, 2 runs, 2 RBI; Schneider 3 singles, double, 2 runs, 5 RBI.

CLAYMONT 3, MINERVA 2

Claymont 002 000 1 — 3 5 3

Minerva 200 000 0 — 2 4 4

Batteries—Debolt and Kamban; Eberling and Preston. W—Debolt, 1-0. L—Eberling, 0-1. HR—Minerva: Kunz.

Records: Claymont 1-0; Minerva 0-1.

Notes: Claymont: Langdon double, Smith 2 singles, run; Minerva: Douglas double; Kelly double, Kunz home run, run, 2 RBI.

TENNIS

BOYS

Scoring Summaries

CANTON SOUTH 3, COVENTRY 2

Singles: Muffet (Cov.) d. Schmidt 6-2, 6-4; Rohr (CS) d. Schindler 6-2, 6-2; Carr (Cov.) d. Hare 7-6 (8-6), 6-4.

Doubles: Doerschuk-Almasy (CS) d. Willard-Randolph 6-2, 6-2; Chisler-Koehler (CS) d. Magnani-Tenney 6-3, 6-2.

Records: Canton South 1-0; Coventry 0-2.

WOODRIDGE 4, RAVENNA 1

Singles: Batu (W) d. VanHoose 6-7, 6-1, 6-4, A. Thomas (W) d. Stennett 6-2, 6-3; Pinta (W) d. Maffia 4-6, 7-5, 6-3.

Doubles: Coleman-Chrin (R) d. Calderwood-Slocum 6-4, 7-5; C. Thomas-Mchale (W) d. Jalbert-Lohr 6-2, 5-7, 6-1.

Records: Woodridge 1-0; Ravenna 0-2.

HUDSON 5, CVCA 0

Singles: Boslet (H) d. Konstan 7-5, 6-2; Polifrone (H) d. Knowles 6-1, 4-6, 6-3; M. Wolowiecki (H) d. Andrews 6-2, 6-3.

Doubles: Nutt-Kotecki (H) d. Richards-Hooloway 6-0, 6-1; Kemper-A. Wolowiecki (H) d. Johnson-Kauffman 6-1, 6-2.

Records: Hudson 1-0; CVCA 0-1.

REVERE 3, PERRY 2

Singles: Lorenz (P) d. P. Harris 6-2, 1-6, 6-3; Hendrickson (R) d. Szittai 6-0, 6-1; Ranalli (P) d. Jin 1-6, 6-4, 6-3.

Doubles: Michalos-Carano (R) d. Mittas-Moline 6-1, 6-0; Li-M. Harris (R) d. Kilmer-Burick 6-1, 6-0.

Records: Revere 2-0; Perry 1-1.

NORTON 4, KENT ROOSEVELT 1

Singles: May (N) d. Wilfong 6-1, 6-4; Caynor (N) d. Mitchell 6-1, 3-6, 6-2; Berkey (K) d. M. Jevric 2-6, 6-4, 6-1.

Doubles: Cundiff-Ra. Roland (N) d. Seidel-Hook 6-0, 6-2; J. Jevric-Ri. Roland (N) d. Laurendutch-Underwood 6-2, 6-4.

Records: Norton 2-0, 2-0; Kent Roosevelt 1-1, 1-1.

FIELD 4, CRESTWOOD 1

Singles: B. Losey (F) d. Roth 6-0, 6-0; Snodgrass (F) d. Tyler 6-3, 7-5; Vaughan (C) d. T. Losey 0-6, 6-2, 6-3.

Doubles: Banks-Mattewhs (F) d. Lovick-Fletcher 6-3, 6-2; Angeli-Wethken (F) d. Turnbull-Strahan 6-0, 6-1.

Records: Field 1-1; Crestwood 1-1.

GREEN 4, ARCHBISHOP HOBAN 1

Singles: Plum (G) d. Potts 6-2, 6-2; Saunders (G) d. Krummel 6-4, 6-3; Bober (H) d. Fehr 6-2, 6-1.

Doubles: Campbell-Lee (G) d. Udovich-Mills 4-6, 6-3, 6-3; Jasso-Lampner (G) d. Hummersmith-Horattas 6-4, 6-0.

Records: Green 1-0.

BARBERTON 3, ELLET 2

Singles: Fisher (B) d. Denham 6-2, 6-0; Stokes (B) d. Terzic 6-4, 3-6, 6-2; Polack (E) d. Griffith 6-1, 6-4.

Doubles: McQuaide-Schumm (B) d. Loesch-Beckert 6-4, 4-6, 6-1; Moore-Cockerham (E) d. Hall-Ilic 1-6, 6-2, 6-0.

WARREN JFK 5, ST. THOMAS AQUINAS 0

Singles: Adbul-Aal (J) d. Reyes 6-2, 6-0; Cole (J) d. Bond 6-4, 6-1; Nader (J) d. Vagedes 6-2, 6-0.

Doubles: J. LaPolla-Phillis (J) d. Blate-Lovett 6-2, 6-1; Covelli-D. LaPolla (J) d. Peterson-Duplin 4-6, 6-2, 11-9.

FIRESTONE 4, KENMORE 1

Singles: Ragland (K) d. Gallo 6-4, 6-2; Winer (F) d. Overstreet 6-4, 6-2; Rieman (F) d. Alavania 6-2, 6-2.

Doubles: Maguire-Broaddus (F) d. Huggins-Mosley 6-0, 6-3; Wilson-Walsh (F) d. Widder-Starky 6-0, 6-1.

Records: Firestone 1-1; Kenmore 1-1.