Jim Salter

ST. LOUIS: With lethal-injection drugs in short supply and new questions looming about their effectiveness, lawmakers in some death penalty states are considering bringing back relics of a more gruesome past: firing squads, electrocutions and gas chambers.

Most states abandoned those execution methods more than a generation ago in a bid to make capital punishment more palatable to the public and to a judicial system worried about inflicting cruel and unusual punishments that violate the Constitution.

But to some elected officials, the drug shortages and recent legal challenges are beginning to make lethal injection seem too vulnerable to complications.

ďThis isnít an attempt to time-warp back into the 1850s or the wild, wild West or anything like that,Ē said Missouri state Rep. Rick Brattin, who this month proposed making firing squads an option for executions. ďItís just that I foresee a problem, and Iím trying to come up with a solution that will be the most humane yet most economical for our state.Ē

Brattin, a Republican, said questions about the injection drugs are sure to end up in court. Itís not fair, he said, for relatives of murder victims to wait years, even decades, to see justice served while lawmakers and judges debate execution methods.

Like Brattin, a Wyoming lawmaker this month offered a bill allowing the firing squad. Missouriís attorney general and a state lawmaker have raised the notion of rebuilding the stateís gas chamber. And a Virginia lawmaker wants to make electrocution an option if lethal-injection drugs are not available.

The total number of U.S. executions has declined ó from a peak of 98 in 1999 to 39 last year. Some states have turned away from the death penalty entirely. Many have cases tied up in court. Meanwhile, European drug makers have stopped selling the lethal chemicals to prisons because they do not want their products used to kill.

At least two recent executions are raising concerns. Last week, Ohio inmate Dennis McGuire took 26 minutes to die by injection, gasping repeatedly as he lay on a gurney with his mouth opening and closing. And on Jan. 9, Oklahoma inmate Michael Lee Wilsonís final words were, ďI feel my whole body burning.Ē