Shortly after last year's shooting massacre on the Las Vegas strip, Ohio Gov. John Kasich convened a working group to explore possible reforms to state gun laws.
A Republican, Kasich appointed panel members who supported the Second Amendment and came from across the political spectrum. Their work accelerated after the Valentine's Day slaughter at a high school in Parkland, Fla.
They eventually produced a legislative package that included what Kasich called "sensible changes that should keep people safer." The legislation was introduced by a Republican lawmaker in the GOP-dominated legislature.
It went nowhere.
Among other objections, the Republican leadership raised constitutional concerns about a provision allowing courts to order that weapons be seized from individuals showing signs of violence.
"The way we put it together, the fact that you had people on both sides of the issue — I would have thought something would have happened," Kasich said. "But the negative voices come in unison and they come strongly."
Kasich acted this week to circumvent the legislature, signing two executive orders that he said can advance some of the recommendations of his bipartisan working group on gun policy.
One order keeps alive the panel, which was made up of Second Amendment supporters across the political spectrum, to keep chipping away at gaps in the National Instant Criminal Background Check System, or NICS. The second establishes emergency rules requiring law enforcement agencies around the state to upload protection orders and warrants into the statewide law enforcement database.
Asked if there are other ways for him to circumvent the legislature, Kasich said: "Every day we look."
The Ohio experience with resistance is not unusual.
An Associated Press review of all firearms-related legislation passed this year, encompassing the first full state legislative sessions since the Las Vegas attack, shows a decidedly mixed record. Gun control bills did pass in a number of states, but the year was not the national game-changer that gun-control advocates had hoped it could be.
Even in a year that included yet another mass school shooting and an unprecedented level of gun-control activism, state legislatures across the country fell back to largely predictable and partisan patterns.
"It's exactly what happened after Newtown: The anti-gun states became more anti-gun and the pro-gun states became more pro-gun," said Michael Hammond, the legislative counsel for Gun Owners of America, referring to the 2012 shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Connecticut that killed 20 children and six educators.
The major exceptions were Florida and Vermont.
Both states have Republican governors and long traditions of gun ownership. Lawmakers passed sweeping legislation after the February shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School that killed 14 students and three staff members and after a foiled school shooting plot in Vermont days later.
The law signed by Florida Gov. Rick Scott banned bump stocks, raised the gun buying age to 21, imposed a three-day waiting period for purchases and authorized police to seek court orders seizing guns from individuals who are deemed threats to themselves and others. The latter provision has already been used hundreds of times.
But no other Republican-dominated state followed Florida's lead, the AP review found.